If the shotcrete is applied correctly, the durability factor is better than cast in place concrete. The 506 and the ASTM documents have references on this subject. There have been papers written on durability and permeability. Countless culverts have been very successfully relined with shotcrete, not only concrete culverts but also brick lined and galvanized metal culverts. If you broaden the definition of culvert to include tunnels you would most likely be identifying where the largest volume of shotcrete is used as a rehabilitation method. To answer questions of durability, shotcrete should be thought of a process or method of placing concrete. Shotcrete in place is concrete. The higher cement content of shotcrete and the impaction of its placement mix design for mix design of other placement methods create a higher strength and more dense, thus less permeable concrete.