Shotcrete has been used in similar structural upgrades for decades quite successfully. There are many ways to ensure that the moisture from the fresh shotcrete would not impact the existing partitions. Methods for protection include use of green board (as used in a shower or bath), plywood, painted coatings, moisture-resistant sheeting, and so on.
Shotcrete is placed with a low water-cement ratio (w/c) and the water is needed by the shotcrete to hydrate the cement and harden. As long as the existing surface or treated surface does not actively absorb the moisture, the shotcrete will use the available internal moisture to hydrate the cementitious materials.