There are many ways to approach this situation. It would be difficult, but not impossible, to install all of the work in a top-down sequence and end up with an architecturally uniform surface.
Approach 1: Install a minimal initial layer top-down with either fibers or welded wire reinforcement. Install dowels from the caissons into the structural facing layer. Install the facing from the bottom up with preplaced V-strips to make the pattern. Finish to the outermost face of the detail strips. Alternately tool the details, but likely more like 1 in. (25 mm) instead of 2 in. (51 mm).
Approach 2: Install the structural wall top-down, encapsulating the outer reinforcing steel to a plane at the depth of the detail strips. Prepare the surface by sandblasting or water blasting to create a favorable bonding surface. Install detail strips to the face of the roughened wall. Place and finish the finish layer to the depth of the detail strips.
If the base layer is properly prepared, the bond should be very good and adding dowels would be redundant. There is nothing wrong with redundancy and if so, the minimum layer thickness would be 2 to 3 in. (51 to 76 mm).
The nature of this work will mandate the use of a highly qualified shotcrete subcontractor who has experience in installing similar-quality architecturally significant walls.