Shotcrete is a method for placing concrete. Concrete has a set time that provides hardness of the in-place concrete. Final set may take anywhere from an hour to several hours depending on the concrete mixture and the weather.
Hot weather has a faster set time than cold weather with the same concrete mixture. If the pool is shot in the morning, it may be hard enough to tolerate a rainstorm in the late afternoon. The concrete should certainly be set by the next day unless there is a very cold overnight temperature or a problem with retarder in the concrete mixture. Tarps could be placed over the vertical walls to protect them from a sudden rainstorm. The floor may be harder to protect as the rainwater wouldn’t necessarily drain off the floor.
If concrete is exposed to rain and the surface isn’t washed off in any way, the concrete should be good. Similarly, if you are expecting freezing temperatures overnight, the fresh concrete must be protected from freezing. This may require using vented heaters and insulated blankets. The goal of the cold weather protection is to keep the surface temperature of the fresh concrete above 50°F (10°C). More details on cold weather protection can be found in ACI PRC-306-16 Guide to Cold Weather Concreting available directly from ACI’s bookstore (concrete.org/store.aspx).