The face or surface of shotcrete walls as described are typically established with ground wires or screeds, which assist the person using the shotcrete rod in cutting the wall to the proper plane. The tools typically used to achieve a troweled surface are the shotcrete rod, wood floats, and steel trowels. Typically, shotcrete walls are a minimum of 4000 psi (27.6 MPa) 28-day compressive strength and the aggregate varies from sand only to a blend of sand and 0.375 to 0.5 in. (9.6 to 13 mm) aggregate. Consult our Shotcrete magazine archives for examples at