Both wet-mix and dry-mix shotcrete when using proper materials, equipment and placement techniques will produce high strength, low permeability concrete in-place. Dry-mix shotcrete will tend to have a lower w/cm since water is added to the dry concrete materials at the nozzle. Wet-mix needs a higher w/cm and a fairly high cement paste content to facilitate pumpability. This can make wet-mix more susceptible to plastic or drying shrinkage cracking than dry-mix. However, cracking in either dry-mix or wet-mix shotcrete can be controlled by using fogging of freshly finished surfaces and then early curing of exposed shotcrete surfaces.
Wet-mix still has very low w/cm (0.40 to 0.45) to allow vertical and overhead placement without sloughing or falling out and is lower than much of the form-and-poured concrete. The low w/cm and high velocity impact produces excellent compressive strength and low permeability. Properly placed dry-mix will have similar compressive strength and permeability as wet-mix. strength gain.