There are a number of ways to treat these stains. Successful treatment will depend on the specific material in the stain and the depth of the stain. The first step would be to try to draw out the material from the surface by applying a poultice of finely ground kitty litter, cement powder, or talc and allow the surface to dry. Repeat this application if necessary.
Next, try a scrubbing a nominally dry detergent powder into the surface. Allow the powder to dry and rinse off the surface. Follow this treatment with a liquid detergent scrubbed with a bristle brush into the surface. Allow the liquid to remain in the surface for 1 to 2 days, then rinse thoroughly. Should the staining persist, you may want to try a proprietary stain remover specifically intended for use on concrete.
Muratic acid is also an option. However, muratic acid can have deleterious affects on the concrete if not thoroughly removed. Because of its potential to attack concrete aggregates and mortar, along with the hazards inherent with applying and removing acid, muratic acid should only be used with the guidance of an experienced consultant. Following a thorough power washing, the surface should be mechanically roughened to ensure proper bond with the shotcrete.