Shotcrete is a placement method for concrete. Dry-mix shotcrete (the old tradename is gunite) using proper materials, equipment, and application techniques should have easily been able to reach a strength of 4000 psi (28 MPa) in the first month. After 10 years in-place the concrete should be even stronger. The level of concrete strength developed by quality shotcrete should easily accommodate drilling in anchors or concrete screws. In my experience it would have been highly unusual to build an entire 10-story building with shotcrete even in the 1960s. I’d suggest based on the extremely weak material properties and the wall turning to dust what you think is shotcrete may be sprayed plaster or stucco. Those materials don’t have near the same strength as shotcrete and would exhibit many of the problems you have mentioned.