The ACI 350 Code doesn’t really cover repair in detail because it is more about new environmental structures. Shotcrete is concrete; it provides excellent bond to properly prepared concrete substrates and it inherently creates a composite section with the existing concrete that acts monolithically. The supplemental shotcrete could be considered an additional layer of concrete that acts monolithically and thus provides the needed concrete cover. Reference-wise, you could refer to the article “Shotcrete Placed in Multiple Layers does NOT Create Cold Joints” in the Shotcrete magazine archive, as it discusses the bond issue between layers. There are research papers that discuss a 200 psi (1.4 MPa) bond shear stress is needed for a bonded concrete overlay to act monolithically, and that bond pulloff (tensile) test results should be multiplied by 2 or 3 to represent the bond shear capacity. Because we typically well exceed a 145 psi (1.0 MPa) tensile bond pulloff strength, properly applied shotcrete will easily exceed the 200 psi requirement for the bond to act monolithically.
An additional factor in providing additional cover with shotcrete is that shotcrete has very cement-rich paste, along with low permeability, and thus provides a better alkaline environment to combat corrosion of embedded reinforcement, so is effectively giving even better cover than normal form-and-pour concrete.