All concrete must be cured to ensure full and proper hydration of cementitious components control of shrinkage. Shotcrete is concrete placed pneumatically, therefore must be cured, as all concrete must be. The tunnel environment presents positive and negative conditions. The humidity in an underground space is generally high in humidity and constant in a moderate to cool temperature. Both conducive to slow egress of moisture from the concrete and “natural” curing. The negative in tunnel construction is ventilation air which is generally of high volume and high speed, which tends to dry the surface and “pull” important moisture out of the sprayed concrete. Most tunnels can tolerate extra water in the work space, therefore misting or spraying water onto the concrete surfaces, especially overhead, is the most practical method of curing. Sprayed on liquid membranes are effective as long as their interference with bonding of additional layers of concrete, sprayed or cast, is not an issue. Recommended reading: “Understanding and Controlling Shrinkage and Cracking in Shotcrete” by D.R. Morgan and C.Chan, published in the ASA Shotcrete magazine.