As a general rule of thumb, brackish or salt water should not be used as shotcrete mixing water. High chloride ion contents can cause rapid setting of the shotcrete (which can make finishing difficult) and longer-term reinforcing steel corrosion-induced cracking, delamination, and spalling. Other components of brackish water can also be damaging to the fresh and hardened shotcrete. For a detailed statement on what constitutes acceptable contents of various dissolved chemicals for concrete/shotcrete mixing water, refer to the Portland Cement Association publication Design and Control of Concrete Mixtures, Chapter 4, “Mixing Water for Concrete.” One could also consult ASTM C1602/C1602M for limits on the composition of nonpotable water for use in the production of shotcrete.