ACI 318-14 (Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete) requires post-installed expansion anchors to meet the testing criteria of ACI 355.2-07 (Qualification of Post-installed Mechanical Anchors in Concrete). ACI 355.2 specifies certain anchor testing and evaluation requirements to verify suitable anchor performance and to determine other aspects (such as failure mode) to use in conjunction with Chapter 17 of ACI 318 when designing the post-installed expansion anchors. Anchor testing is required largely to be performed by an independent agency and normally is conducted in normal weight and/or light weight concrete that meet pertinent ACI, ASTM and other requirements. Some post-installed expansion anchor manufacturers (like Hilti) have not had their anchors tested per ACI 355.2 in shotcrete type concrete, only tested in normal weight and light weight concrete. As such, these anchor manufacturers typically do not publish/offer any permitted load ratings, installation torques or other design and installation requirements for their expansion bolts when used in shotcrete. Instead, they recommend site testing to determine anchor performance or that the responsible design engineer can make an engineering judgment on anchor acceptability, as appropriate, if site testing is not performed. Do you have knowledge of any expansion bolt manufacturers that have tested their products is typical shotcrete? If yes to #1 above, do you know if the testing was done per ACI 355.2 requirements?
Shotcrete is a placement method for concrete. With proper equipment and placement techniques, concrete shotcreted in place will have strength, unit weight, permeability, and other hardened properties equivalent or superior to cast concrete consolidated by vibration. Due to delivering concrete material through relatively small diameter lines (1.5 to 2 in.) [38 to 51 mm] concrete mixtures for shotcrete placement typically limit the maximum coarse aggregate size to a nominal 3/8 to ½ in. (9.5 – 13 mm) size.
Thus, answering your specific questions:
- We are not aware of any expansion bolt manufacturers tests that used shotcrete placement of concrete for their test samples. However, tests on cast concrete should be equivalent with a given compressive strength and aggregate size/type in the concrete mixture.
- We expect that as answered in #1, that the tests run with ACI 355.2 requirements in cast concrete would have similar results when used with shotcrete placement of the concrete mixtures with similar hardened properties.
Also, note that ACI 318-19 directly includes shotcrete as a placement method for structural concrete.
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