The Park Avenue Tunnel, formerly known as the Murray Hill Tunnel, is a 1,393-foot-long (425 m), 16-foot-wide (5 m), 9-foot-tall (3 m) thoroughfare traversing six New York City blocks. The tunnel was originally constructed in 1837 as an open rock-cut, with a brick arch constructed over the cut in 1854 to create the tunnel profile. For the next 150 years, the tunnel would be plagued with issues ranging from mechanical system failures to liner wall leakage due to the soil volume above, which is where the idea of shotcrete stabilization was introduced within the project scope.