In 1989, the Austrian Concrete Society pub-lished a Guideline on Shotcrete that subse-quently served as a reference work and a contractual basis for shotcrete works in tunnel con-struction in Austria and abroad. Other standards,such as DIN 18551, focused more strongly on shotcrete for concrete repair works. At the end of 1998, after several revisions, a new edition of the Austrian Guideline was published that also con-siders recent developments in the field of shot-crete technology. Dealing with a
whole range of issues, from base ma-